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E. Francioni1, F.F. Oliveira2, R.A. Lourenço2, J.M. Souza1, M.A.G. Araujo Jr1, A.H.M.F.T. Silva1, I.R. Cruz1, A.A. Menegario3, A.L.R. Wagener2, A.H. Nudi2, R.C. Campos2, J.E.L. Oliveira4, L.P. Araujo1, T.H. Furley5, R. C. Ferreira6, D. Camerini6,M.F.G. Meniconi1

1 Petrobras Research and Development Center (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

3 Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, Brazil

4 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, Brazil

5 APLYSIA ? Technology for the Environment, Vitoria, Brazil

6 ATIVA ? Tecnologia e Desenvolvimento, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


In 2007 Petrobras, the Brazilian oil company, proposed a project to assess the bioaccumulation of trace elements and PAH in marine organisms due to oil and gas (O&G) production activities in the Brazilian Continental Shelf. Two strategies were chosen: Active Monitoring, with deploying bivalves and Passive Monitoring, catching feral fishes. This project was designed for two scenarios. The first one performed in Potiguar Basin, a coastal and shallow area where treated produced water (PW) from both offshore and terrestrial O&G production activities is discharged by submarine outfalls at 95.000 m3 day-1. The second scenario was accomplished in Campos Basin, an offshore area with deep water that accounts for 80% of the O&G production of Brazil, where treated PW is locally discharged. Three platforms were studied: two with PW discharges and one with no discharges as a reference platform. Integrated devices for water quality evaluation such as SPMD and DGT were also considered in this study.

Active monitoring has shown the influence of oil industry discharges based on PAH bioaccumulation (including alkyl homologues) in bivalve tissues. Passive monitoring was effective to reveal PAH bioaccumulation only in resident fishes nearby Campos Basin platforms. Regarding trace elements, no influence of the oil industry in the biota body burdens was observed for both monitoring strategies and locations. The trace element levels were associated to natural background in the marine studied environment. Chemical data were compared to international studies, presenting similar levels to those observed in Gulf of Mexico and North Sea.

SPMD has shown a promising approach for determining petrogenic PAH in tropical waters, comparable to the effluent compounds distribution. However, the results were qualitative different from the PAH in bivalve samples. Phenanthrene and its alkyl homologues were bioaccumulated in higher concentrations in marine organisms compared to naphtalenes and other petrogenic PAH. Therefore, it is important to consider the use of SPMD in active monitoring for O&G industry, in order to obtain robust interpretations.

Through DGT it was possible to quantify trace elements in very low levels in seawater and a better option has been revealed for water monitoring, rather than conventional sampling techniques. DGT results allowed to certify the natural background levels for trace elements in the studied environment, similar to those found in the deployed bivalves.